Essentials Of Unification Thought - The Head-Wing Thought
II. Subject and Object
I have explained that an individual truth body has the universal image, which consists of Sungsang and Hyungsang, and yang and yin. Sungsang and Hyungsang, and also yang and yin, exist in relationships of subject and object. An individual truth body, which is a created being, possesses yet another type of subject and object pair besides Sungsang and Hyungsang, and yang and yin. This pair consists of principal element and subordinate element (or principal being and subordinate being). This results from the fact that the created world is temporal and spatial in nature.
For example, the relationships between parents and children in the family, between teachers and students in schools, between the sun and the earth in the solar system, and between the nucleus and the cytoplasm in cells are neither relationships of Sungsang and Hyungsang nor relationships of yang and yin. These are relationships of principal element and subordinate element, or principal being and subordinate being. This shows that there are three kinds of subject-and-object relationships in individual truth bodies, namely, Sungsang and Hyungsang, yang and yin, and principal element (being) and subordinate element (being). All of these resemble the relationship of subject and object in the dual characteristics of God.
The characteristic features of the relationship between subject and object are those of central and dependent, active and passive, dynamic and static, creative and conservative, initiating and responding, extrovert and introvert, and so forth. This does not mean that a particular principal element and a particular subordinate element must have all of these relationships at any one time; they may sometimes be in the relationship of central and dependent, sometimes in the relationship of active and passive, and so forth. Generally speaking, the relationship between the subject and the object is that between one exercising dominion over the other and one receiving dominion from the other.
A. The System of Individual Truth Bodies in the Created World
Every existing being contains a correlative relationship of Sungsang and Hyungsang, yang and yin, and principal element (being) and subordinate element (being). This will be explained through a few examples of individual truth bodies on different levels, extending from the largest world (macrocosm) down to the smallest elementary particles (microcosm).
The cosmos itself is an individual truth body. It consists of the spirit world and the physical world (the physical world is also called "the universe"). The spirit world is the invisible world, and the physical world is the visible world. These two worlds exist in the relationship of subject and object. In this particular case, the subject-and-object relationship is that between Sungsang and Hyungsang.
The universe (i.e., the physical world), in turn, is an individual truth body as well. The universe has a center, and around that center, about 200 billion galaxies (or nebulae) are revolving. In this particular relationship, the center of die universe is the principal element, and each galaxy is a subordinate element. A galaxy, also, is an individual truth body. The galaxy in which we live, for instance, consists of a nucleus and about 200 billion stars. The galactic nucleus is the principal element, and the stars are the subordinate elements; these two kinds of elements exist in the relationship of subject and object.
Our sun is one of the stars in the galaxy. The solar system, also, is an individual truth body. The solar system consists of the sun and nine planets. The sun and the planets are in the respective positions of principal element and subordinate elements, forming a relationship of subject and object. The earth, one of the planets in the solar system, is an individual truth body as well. The earth has a core, on one hand, and a surface and crust, on the other. These are the principal element (core) and the subordinate element (surface and crust), forming a relationship of subject and object.
The surface of the earth can, likewise, be regarded as an individual truth body. The earth's surface consists of all the natural things, and is inhabited by human beings. Human beings are the principal element (the subject), and natural things are the subordinate elements (the object). Human beings form nations, which are individual truth bodies, consisting of government and people, where the government is the principal element (the subject) and the people is the subordinate element (the object).
The family, also, is an individual truth body, consisting of parents and children, or husband and wife. Parents and children are in the relationship of principal and subordinate individuals, whereas husband and wife are in the relationship of yang and yin individuals. Parents and children are in the relationship of subject and object; husband and wife, also, are in the relationship of subject and object. An individual person, also, is an individual truth body, consisting of a spirit person and a physical person. In this case, the spirit person and the physical person are in a subject-and-object relationship, forming a relationship of Sungsang and Hyungsang.
If now we turn our eyes to the physical person, it consists of physical mind and physical body, which are in the relationship of subject and object as Sungsang and Hyungsang, respectively. Within the human body, each cell is an individual truth body, consisting of a nucleus as the principal element and the cytoplasm as the subordinate element. The nucleus of the cell, in turn, is an individual truth body, consisting of chromosomes as the principal element and nuclear sap as the subordinate element. Each chromosome also, is an individual truth body, consisting of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) as the principal element and proteins as the subordinate element. Nucleic acid is a molecule, which in itself is an individual truth body, consisting of nitrogenous bases (purines and pyrimidines) as the principal element and sugars (ribose or deoxyribose) and phosphate as the subordinate element. Bases, sugars, and phosphate are formed by atoms. An atom is an individual truth body, consisting of protons as the principal element and electrons as the subordinate element. Atoms are formed by elementary particles. An elementary particle is an individual truth body as well, consisting of a principal element and a subordinate element.
Hence, there are many levels of individual truth bodies in the universe, from elementary particles in the microcosm to the heavenly bodies of the macrocosm, including the cosmos itself. Each of them consists of correlative elements of subject and object. When an individual truth body is seen from the viewpoint of a higher-level individual truth body, the lower-level one is nothing but a component of the higher-level one. For example, the solar system is an individual truth body, consisting of the sun and the planets; when, however, it is seen from the viewpoint of the galaxy (a higher-level individual truth body), the solar system is nothing but a component of the galaxy. This means that "individual truth body" is a relative concept. Moreover, "subject" and "object" are relative concepts as well. For example, the sun is subject to the planets, but in the galaxy, it is object to the nucleus of the galaxy. The progressive system of individual truth bodies and the correlative elements of subject and object within them are laid out in Fig. 2-3.
B. Types of Subjects and Objects
The concepts of subject and object in Unification Thought are not the same as the concepts of subject and object in traditional philosophy. That difference will now be clarified.
From an epistemological perspective, "subject" in traditional philosophy refers to that which cognizes, that is, consciousness, or self, whereas "object" refers to that which is cognized. Thus, subject refers to that which exists within consciousness (ideas) and object refers to that which exists outside consciousness (matter). From an ontological perspective, or in a practical sense, subject in traditional philosophy refers to an existing being with consciousness (i.e., a human being), whereas object refers to a being with which the subject is faced. In short, in traditional philosophy subject and object refer to the relationship between consciousness (or the human being) and the thing which it is faced with.
Fig. 2-3: The System of Individual Truth Bodies and the Correlative Elements Within Each Individual Truth Body on Each Level
In Unification Thought, the concepts of subject and object bear a different meaning. These concepts refer not only to the relationship between a human being and a thing, but also to the relationship between a human being and another human being, and to that between a thing and another thing. These relationships are of four types, as follows:
1. Original type
The original type refers to a relationship that is everlasting and universal from the perspective of God's creation. Examples of the original type are the relationships between parents and children, husband and wife, teacher and students, star and planets, nucleus and cytoplasm, and protons and electrons.
2. Temporary type
Relationships that last for a limited time are of the temporary type. These relationships frequently occur in day-to-day life. One example is the relationship between a lecturer and the audience, which is established when a lecture is being given. Even in relationships of the original type, the positions are sometimes reversed to create a relationship of the temporary type. In the family, for instance, the wife may sometimes take on the responsibility of the husband, and the children may sometimes take on the responsibility of the parents. Such relationships can be regarded as being of the temporary type. But even in such cases, the original type does not totally disappear; thus, they are simply relationships of a temporary type based on the original type.
3. Alternating type
When the subject alternates with the object, the relationship is of die alternating type. An example of this is a dialogue between two persons: The one who speaks is the subject, and the one who listens is the object. In a dialogue, however, the speaking person and the listening person alternate with each other -- hence, this is a relationship of the alternating type.
4. Arbitrary type
In certain relationships, the human being arbitrarily decides which element is the subject and which is the object. These are called relationships of the arbitrary type. For example, in the relationship between animals and plants, animals discharge carbon dioxide, which is given to plants; and plants, in turn, discharge oxygen, which is given to animals. From the perspective of the flow of oxygen, plants can be regarded as the subject; but from the perspective of the flow of carbon dioxide, animals can be regarded as the subject. This and similar cases fall under the arbitrary type.
C Give-and-Receive Action
When a correlative relationship of subject and object is formed centering on a common purpose, either between two elements within a being or between a being and another being, there comes about an action of giving and receiving a definite element or force. Through this action, the entities involved maintain their existence and are able to move, change, and develop. This kind of action between subject and object is called "give-and-receive action."
For example, when students enroll in a school, a correlative relationship is established between students and teachers. The teachers provide instruction, and the students gain new learning. This is called give-and-receive action. Through this action, knowledge and techniques are transmitted, and also the students' personality and character are built.
The following example can explain the meaning of correlative relationship. When a man and a woman become acquainted with each other, by some opportunity or by arrangement, they form what is called a "correlative relationship." If subsequently they get married, form a family, and live a life of love, they are engaging in what is called "give-and-receive action." The solar system is another example: the sun and the planets have been in a correlative relationship since 4.6 billion years ago, maintaining the solar system by attracting one another through universal gravitation. This is another example of give-and-receive action.
In God, there are the identity-maintaining aspect and the developmental aspect. In the identity-maintaining aspect, the Original Sungsang and the Original Hyungsang engage in give-and-receive action centering on Heart, forming a union and existing forever. In the developmental aspect, the Original Sungsang and the Original Hyungsang engage in give-and-receive action centering on purpose (i.e., the purpose of creation), engendering a multiplied body, or a created being. The first relationship is described as "identity-maintaining give-and-receive action," and the second one is described as "developmental give-and-receive action."
In similar fashion, there are identity-maintaining give-and receive action and developmental give-and-receive action in the created world. For instance, in our galaxy, give-and-receive action takes place between its nucleus and about 200 billion stars centered on the nucleus. The shape of the galaxy has the form of a convex lens and is constant, and all the stars perform revolving motions while keeping their own particular orbits. From this perspective, the galaxy has an unchanging aspect. On the other hand, it is said that in the beginning the galaxy revolved slowly, but as time went on, it came to revolve faster and faster. Also, it is well known that old stars die and new stars are born. Thus, the galaxy has the aspect of change as well. Hence, there are aspects of both identity-maintaining give-and-receive action and developmental give-and-receive action in the galaxy.
Furthermore, within the Sungsang of God (i.e., the Original Sungsang), the Inner Sungsang and the Inner Hyungsang engage in give-and-receive action centering either on Heart or on purpose, whereby they either form a "union" or produce a "new body" (i.e., a "multiplied body"), respectively. This is called "inner give-and-receive action." On the other hand, the Original Sungsang and the Original Hyungsang, also, engage in give-and-receive action centering either on Heart on purpose, whereby they either form a "union" or produce a "new body" ("multiplied body"), respectively. This is called "outer give-and-receive action."
This pattern of two-stage action, namely, inner give-and-receive action and outer give-and-receive action, based on the two-stage structure of God, applies directly to the created world. For example, in the relationship between a human being and things, the human being, through inner give-and-receive action, engages in thinking, and then, through outer give-and-receive action, cognizes things and exercises dominion over them. In human society, the give-and-receive action between the spirit mind and the physical mind of a human being is inner give-and-receive action, whereas the give-and-receive action between a human being and another is outer give-and-receive action.
There are five types of give-and-receive action, which will be explained next. What distinguishes one type from another is whether or not the subject and the object possess consciousness.
1. Bi-Conscious Type
In a classroom, the teacher is the subject and the students are the objects, and they engage in give-and-receive action while both sides are conscious of that action. This is called give-and-receive action of the bi-conscious type. The subject and the object can be both conscious not only in cases between a human being and another, but also in cases between a human being and an animal, and even between an animal and another. Such relationships are of the bi-conscious type.
2. Uni-Conscious Type
When a teacher writes words on a blackboard, give-and-receive action takes place between the teacher and the blackboard. In this case, the teacher acts consciously, but the blackboard does not. One side alone (the subject) has consciousness while the other side (the object) does not. This is called give-and-receive action of the uni-conscious type.
3. Unconscious Type
Animals inhale oxygen and exhale carbon dioxide in their breathing actions. On the other hand, plants absorb carbon dioxide during the daytime and release oxygen. In this instance, animals do not consciously exhale carbon dioxide for the sake of plants, neither do plants consciously release oxygen for the sake of animals. Both sides act unconsciously while exchanging carbon dioxide and oxygen. Cases in which both parties engage in give-and-receive action unconsciously, even if one or both parties may have consciousness, are called give-and-receive action of the unconscious type.
4. Heteronomous Type
When neither the subject nor the object possesses consciousness, and both are induced by the will of a third party to engage in give-and-receive action, the relationship is called give-and receive action of the heteronomous type. For example, the sun and the earth engage in give-and-receive action according to God's purpose of creation, even though they are not conscious of it. This is give-and-receive action of the heteronomous type. In another example, the various parts of a watch engage in give-and-receive action with one another according to the will of the person who made it. Such kinds of give-and-receive actions are of the heteronomous type.
5. Contrast Type (Collation Type)
When we contrast two or more things and thereby discover harmony between them, we regard them as engaging in some sort of give-and-receive action. This is called give-and-receive action of the contrast type, or collation type. In this relationship, the human observer determines (consciously or unconsciously) one element to be the subject and the other to be the object, contrasts them, and thereby regards them as engaging in give-and-receive action.
Art appreciation is a typical case of give-and-receive action of the contrast type. In creating an artwork, the artist adjusts and contrasts colors, shades of light, sounds, and so forth, in order to harmonize these elements. In art appreciation, the appreciator, when confronted with an artwork (a painting, a musical piece, etc.) will also contrast the various elements within the artwork to find harmony in them.
Give and receive action of the contrast type can also be found in the process of thinking. For example, the judgment "this flower is a rose" is made by regarding "this flower" as the subject and "a rose" as the object, and then contrasting them. In the process of cognition, contrast takes place between the sensory stimuli coming from the outside world (such as shapes, colors, and fragrances) and the prototypes within the human subject. In Unification epistemology, this process is called "collation," and is an instance of give-and-receive action of the contrast type.
D. Correlatives and Opposites
As stated earlier, in each individual truth body there always are paired elements of subject and object. These paired elements are called "correlatives." The subject and the object form a correlative relation centering on a purpose and engage in harmonious give-and-receive action, Forming either a union or a multiplied body. In Unification Thought, this is called "law of give-and-receive action," or simply, "give-and-receive law." This position contrasts with that of materialistic dialectic, which asserts that within every being there exist "opposites," or "contradictory elements," and that things can develop only through a struggle between these opposites.
Do things exist and develop through harmonious give-and receive action between correlatives (as Unification Thought asserts), or do they exist and develop through the struggle between opposites (as materialistic dialectic asserts)? It should be stated, first, that Unification Thought and materialistic dialectic agree in one point, namely, that in every being there always are two elements. In order to determine whether there is harmonious give-and receive action or struggle between these two elements, one need only to ascertain whether or not there is a common purpose between them. If there is a common purpose, we can say that there is harmonious give-and-receive action, and the two elements are correlatives; if there is no common purpose between them, we must say that the two elements are opposite. Another way is to examine whether the interaction between the two elements is harmonious or conflictive. If we find the interaction to be harmonious, then it is give-and-receive action; if, instead, we find it to be conflictive, then it is dialectical action.
Marx asserted that things develop through the dialectic, but lie only dealt with social problems, and did not cite a single example that could indicate that natural phenomena develop through the struggle of opposites. Thus, in order to compensate for that weakness in Marx' thought, Engels studied the natural sciences and compiled his conclusions in the books Dialectics of Nature and Anti-During. In the latter book, Engels announced he had reached the conclusion that "nature is the proof of dialectics." 7
If, however, one carefully examines the natural phenomena cited by Engels, one finds that what is occurring in those phenomena is not struggle but rather harmonious actions centered on a common purpose. (A more detailed explanation of this point has been given in my book The End of Communism, and therefore is omitted here.) Accordingly, nature cannot be said to be the "proof of dialectics"; instead, nature is the "proof of give-and receive action." Such struggles do exist, but only among human beings in human society; they are, however, a result from the human fall.
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